## Friday, June 22, 2012

### Plotting non-overlapping circles...

It's holiday today in Sweden, so happy Midsummer to everyone!!! (I know, it's delayed)

No work for me, so I checked up the latest XKCD:

Gorgeous, right? So I decided to see if I could make something similar - but being lazy, I didn't feel like drawing all circles one by one... I decided to try and have R do it for me instead.

The trick is in drawing the n-th circle avoiding to plot over the previous (n-1). The rest is eye-candy.

So, first of all, you need a data set: you can get the original one from (I presume) exoplanets.eu, if you like. At first I tried but then I just decided to use a randomly generated set:

N<-650 # number of exoplanets
R<-1000 # radius of a 2D-circle where you'll want to plot them
MinMass<-5; # minimum mass for the planets
MaxMass<-100; # maximum mass for the planets
P<-6 # power exponent for the mass distribution
Q<-3 # this exponent scales the mass to radii...
margin<-mean(c(MinMass,MaxMass)); # a minimum separation you want to mantain between planets when plotted
# a function to name each planet with a random string of letters (optional)
getRandString<-function(len=8) return(paste(sample(c(LETTERS,letters),len,replace=TRUE),collapse=''))
I redorder the exoplanets in order of mass, so that they'll be printed from the largest to the samllest... it makes it easier later on to generate the plot, a bit like it's easier filling a bucket with rocks, then  with gravel, then with sand, than doing it the other way around...
exoplanets<-list(Mass=sort(runif(N, MinMass^(1/P), MaxMass^(1/P))^P, decreasing=TRUE), Name=replicate(n=N, getRandString()))

Ok, so now we have a bunch of data which looks like this:

> exoplanets\$Name[1:5]
[1] "lRnrqjcQ" "YuhcqSTO" "MmrAZvzi" "ROMpQwlZ" "epnBwmtj"
> exoplanets\$Mass[1:5]
[1] 99.98406 99.43530 99.26070 98.80203 98.50710
next we define a matrix where to store the x and y values needed for plotting, together with a  function to generate those values:

mtrx<-matrix(nrow=N, ncol=2); colnames(mtrx)<-c('x','y')
getxy_withinR<-function(R=10) {
r<-runif(1,0,R^2)^(1/2); theta<-runif(1,0,2*pi);
x<-r*cos(theta)
y<-r*sin(theta)
return(c(x,y))
}
as some of you may have spotted, the x/y values are generated within circle of a given radius, at an angle theta randomly chosen. Importantly, in order not to crowd the origin, I apply a 1/r^2 scaling to the coordinates being generated...

Now it's time to set up a function to check if a bubble is bumping on any other:

distance<-sqrt((X-x)^2 + (Y-y)^2); # print (paste("distance is ",distance))
}
I just compute the distance from another (set of) bubble(s)... The function will soon be applied but first let's draw an empty plot:

lim<-R+MaxMass
plot(NULL, xlim=c(-lim,lim), ylim=c(-lim,lim))
Now it's the time to loop over all bubbles to generate the coordinates, check if they bump with others, and draw them in many colors...

for (n in 1:N) {
print(paste("placing",n, exoplanets\$Name[n]))
# generate new coordinates
xy<-getxy_withinR(R); x<-xy[1]; y<-xy[2];
if (n!=1) {
tocheck<-(1:(n-1))
while(overlap<-check_bounce(x,y,exoplanets\$Mass[n],mtrx[tocheck,'x'],mtrx[tocheck,'y'],exoplanets\$Mass[tocheck]) > 0)
{
xy<-getxy_withinR(R); x<-xy[1]; y<-xy[2];
}
}
mtrx[n,'x']<-x; mtrx[n,'y']<-y;
# draw a circle once you know where
exoplanets\$X[n]<-xy[1]; exoplanets\$Y[n]<-xy[2];
draw.circle(x=exoplanets\$X[n], y=exoplanets\$Y[n], r=exoplanets\$Mass[n]^(2/Q), col=rgb(runif(1,0,1),runif(1,0,1),runif(1,0,1),(0.5+n/(2*N))), border=rgb(runif(1,0,1),runif(1,0,1),runif(1,0,1),(0.5+n/(2*N))))
# Sys.sleep(0.03)
}
I draw the large ones first, and I keep them semi-transparent, decreasing the transparency as I go forward, in the hope that this will make it easier to spot new bubbles appearing when the plot is crowded... Judge yourself if it works:

I know, it doesn't really look like Randall's drawing at XKCD - it's tricky to compactify all the bubbles without overlapping them... and the dumb algo I came up with to check bumps doesn't scale very well...
I've toyed with the idea of making the bubbles into a dynamic system with some attraction and repulsion, letting it evolve to an equilibrium state... But I didn't want to get too bogged down with it... perhaps later...

For the moment, it's close enough. It's sunny outside and I deserve some cycling time. Source code is below:

Never mind my dumb attempt - here's a better solution in a blog post I wasn't aware of: http://www.r-bloggers.com/circle-packing-with-r/

## Sunday, June 3, 2012

### Coding a dynamic systems and controlling it via a graphical user interface

My work, in the past year, has consisted mostly of coding dynamic models in R, models which I will soon be exporting to a server-based R implementation, possibly thanks to rApache.

I ususally run my models through an input file where I specify all parameters needed, but for the end users, we felt it may be better to provide a graphical user interface where they could select just a few parameters, with the others defaulting to meaningful values.

Wioth this post I want to quickly illustrate all that's needed to put such a system together, exception made for the rApache part. I've not made any steps in that direction, yet.

So, let's start by defining a dynamic model, which we'll integrate using the deSolve package. We use the Lorentz system, which is far simpler than any of the models I actually work with, and produces much more beautiful and interesting graphics, too.

OK, if you run this you'll obtain a variable called 'out', which contains the X/Y/Z coordinates of your system at different time instants in the phase space. You can look at the values directly, but obviously plotting is a good option. Taking advantage of the 'multiplot' function defined in the Cookbook for R, we can write:

Which will generate the following picture:
I did make use of the alpha channel to give some sense of depth to all pictures. I would love to plot a 3D version of the Lorenz Attractor in the fourth panel, lower right - however, I didn't want to get bogged down in defining a rotation / projection matrix.

Until now, there's no GUI - all this happens within the command line, or if you prefer a simple R script.

Unless, that is, you also define a gWidget which can actualy control your model, like this:

To draw this, you just need to type a few lines of code in your R script, plus some more functions to handle events (that is, you clicking the button or changing parameter values)

As a matter of fact, we can also embed the graphical output within the GUI window, either on the side of the controls, or in another tab. perhaps I'll update the post later on to reflect that.